dynamic display Speech and Language Definitions
Speech: production of phonemes: articulated speech sounds and syllables, fluency and/or voice
Articulation is the movement of the speech mechanism to produce the sounds of speech. Most children make some mistakes as they learn to say new words. A speech sound disorder occurs when mistakes continue past a certain age. Every sound has a different range of ages when the child should make the sound correctly.
Speech & Articulation Development Chart
Fluency is the smooth and easy flow of speaking. One type of dysfluency is stuttering.
Voice is the quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration of the vocal sound produced.
Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following: What words mean (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity) How to make new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly) How to put words together (e.g., "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg walk store new") What word combinations are best in what situations ("Would you mind moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce results).
I Love Lucy English Pronunciation example:
Trouble understanding others is receptive language, and trouble sharing thoughts, ideas, wants/needs, and feelings completely is expressive language.
Language Development Chart
AAC: Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) includes all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas. We all use AAC when we make facial expressions or gestures, use symbols or pictures, or write. People with severe speech or language problems rely on AAC to supplement existing speech or replace speech that is not functional. Special augmentative aids, such as picture and symbol communication boards and dynamic display electronic communication devices, are available to help people express themselves. This also provides a means for social interaction, assists with school performance, and feelings of self-worth. AAC users do not stop using speech, but rather the AAC devices are used to enhance their communication.
A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems. A communication disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech. A communication disorder may range in severity from mild to profound. It may be developmental or acquired.
A speech disorder is an impairment of the articulation of speech sounds, fluency and/or voice. An articulation disorder is the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, omissions, additions or distortions that may interfere with intelligibility. An example: family and close friends are not able to understand what the child is saying.
A fluency disorder is an interruption in the flow of speaking characterized by atypical rate, rhythm, and repetitions in sounds, syllables, words, and phrases. This may be accompanied by excessive tension, struggle behavior, and secondary mannerisms.
A voice disorder is characterized by the abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for an individual's age and/or sex.
A language disorder is impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written and/or other symbol systems. The disorder may involve (1) the form of language (phonology, morphology, syntax), (2) the content of language (semantics), and/or (3) the function of language in communication (pragmatics) in any combination. Phonology is the sound system of a language and the rules that govern the sound combinations. Morphology is the system that governs the structure of words and the construction of word forms. Syntax is the system governing the order and combination of words to form sentences, and the relationships among the elements within a sentence. Semantics is the system that governs the meanings of words and sentences. Pragmatics is the system that combines the above language components in functional and socially appropriate communication. An example: a child that is not using 1-2 word combinations to express wants/needs.
A hearing disorder is the result of impaired auditory sensitivity of the physiological auditory system. A hearing disorder may limit the development, comprehension, production, and/or maintenance of speech and/or language. Hearing disorders are classified according to difficulties in detection, recognition, discrimination, comprehension, and perception of auditory information. Individuals with hearing impairment may be described as deaf or hard of hearing. Hard of hearing is defined as a hearing disorder, whether fluctuating or permanent, which adversely affects an individual's ability to communicate. The hard-of-hearing individual relies on the auditory channel as the primary sensory input for communication.
Central auditory processing disorders are deficits in the information processing of audible signals not attributed to impaired peripheral hearing sensitivity or intellectual impairment. Specifically, CAPD refers to limitations in the ongoing transmission, analysis, organization, transformation, elaboration, storage, retrieval, and use of information contained in audible signals. CAPD may involve the listener's ability to do the following: attend, discriminate, and identify acoustic signals; transform and continuously transmit information through both the peripheral and central nervous systems; filter, sort, and combine information at appropriate perceptual and conceptual levels; store and retrieve information efficiently; restore, organize, and use retrieved information; segment and decode acoustic stimuli using phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic knowledge; and attach meaning to a stream of acoustic signals through use of linguistic and nonlinguistic contexts.
Augmentative/alternative communication systems attempt to compensate and facilitate, temporarily or permanently, for the impairment and disability patterns of individuals with severe expressive and/ or language comprehension disorders. Augmentative/alternative communication may be required for individuals demonstrating impairments in gestural, spoken, and/or written modalities.
Reference this material as: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1993). Definitions of communication disorders and variations [Relevant Paper]. Available from www.asha.org/policy. © Copyright 1993 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. All rights reserved.Disclaimer: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association disclaims any liability to any party for the accuracy, completeness, or availability of these documents, or for any damages arising out of the use of the documents and any information they contain. doi:10.1044/policy.RP1993-00208 - See more at: http://www.asha.org/policy/RP1993-00208/#sthash.4GhfkQPI.dpuf